Key learning in Writing


Vocabulary,grammar and punctuation

  • Create complex sentences by using relative clauses with pronouns who, which, where, whose, when, that e.g. Sam, who had remembered his wellies, was first to jump in the river. The robberies, which had taken place over the past month, remained unsolved.
  • Create and punctuate complex sentences using ed openers.
  • Create and punctuate complex sentences using ing openers.
  • Create and punctuate complex sentences using simile starters.
  • Demarcate complex sentences using commas and explore ambiguity of meaning.
  • Explore, collect and use modal verbs to indicate degrees of possibility e.g. might, could, shall, will, must.
  • Use devices to build cohesion within a paragraph e.g. firstly, then, presently, subsequently.
  • Link ideas across paragraphs using adverbials for time, place and numbers e.g. later, nearby, secondly.
  • Identify and use brackets and dashes
  • Use suffixes –ate, -ise, -ify to convert nouns and adjectives into verbs.

Investigate verb prefixes e.g. dis-, re-, pre-, mis-, over-.


Plan their writing by:

  • Identifying the audience and purpose
  • Selecting the appropriate language and structures.
  • Using similar writing models.
  • Noting and developing ideas.
  • Drawing on reading and research.
  • Thinking how authors develop characters and settings (in books, films and performances).

Draft and write by:

  • Selecting appropriate grammar and vocabulary.
  • Blending action, dialogue and description within and across paragraphs.
  • Using devices to build cohesion (see VGP column).
  • Using organisation and presentational devices e.g. headings, sub headings, bullet points, diagrams, text boxes.

Evaluate and edit by:

  • Assessing the effectiveness of own and others’ writing in relation to audience and purpose.
  • Suggesting changes to grammar, vocabulary and punctuation to enhance effects and clarify meaning.
  • Ensuring consistent and correct use of tense throughout a piece of writing.
  • Ensuring consistent subject and verb agreement.
  • Proofreading for spelling and punctuation errors.

Perform own compositions for different audiences:

  • Using appropriate intonation and volume.
  • Adding movement.

Ensuring meaning is clear.



  • Spell words that they have not yet been taught by using what they have learnt about how spelling works in English.
  • Use further prefixes and suffixes and understand the guidelines for adding them.
  • Spell some words with ‘silent’ letters, e.g. knight, psalm, solemn.
  • Continue to distinguish between homophones and other words which are often confused.
  • Use knowledge of morphology and etymology in spelling and understand that the spelling of some words needs to be learnt specifically.
  • Use dictionaries to check the spelling and meaning of words.
  • Use the first three or four letters of a word to check spelling, meaning or both of these in a dictionary.
  • Use a thesaurus.
  • Use suffixes –ate, -ise, -ify to convert nouns and adjectives into verbs.
  • Investigate verb prefixes e.g. dis-, re-, pre-, mis-, over-.


  • Write fluently.
  • Choose when it is appropriate to print or join writing e.g. printing for labelling a scientific diagram.


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