Key Learning in Writing


Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation

  • Explore and identify main and subordinate clauses in complex sentences.
  • Explore, identify and create complex sentences using a range of conjunctions e.g. if, while, since, after, before, so, although, until, in case.
  • Identify, select, generate and effectively use prepositions for where e.g. above, below, beneath, within, outside, beyond.
  • Select, generate and effectively use adverbs e.g. suddenly, silently, soon, eventually.
  • Use inverted commas to punctuate direct speech (speech marks).
  • Use perfect form of verbs using have and had to indicate a completed action e.g. I have washed my hands. We will have eaten our lunch by the time Dad arrives. Jack had watched TV for over two hours!
  • Use the determiner a or an according to whether the next word begins with a consonant or vowel e.g. a rock, an open box.
  • Explore and collect word families e.g. medical, medicine, medicinal, medic, paramedic, medically to extend vocabulary.

Explore and collect words with prefixes super, anti, auto.


Plan their writing by:

  • Reading and analysing narrative, non-fiction and poetry in order to plan and write their own versions.
  • Identifying and discussing the purpose, audience, language and structures of narrative, non-fiction and poetry for writing.
  • Discussing and recording ideas for planning.
  • Creating and developing settings for narratives.
  • Creating and developing characters for narrative.
  • Creating and developing plots based on a model.
  • Generating and selecting from vocabulary banks e.g. noun phrases, powerful verbs, technical language, synonyms for said appropriate to text type.
  • Grouping related material into paragraphs.
  • Using headings and sub headings to organise information.

Evaluate, and edit by:

  • Proofreading to check for errors in spelling, grammar and punctuation in own and others’ writing.
  • Discussing and proposing changes with partners and in small groups.
  • Improving writing in the light of evaluation.

Perform their own compositions by:

Using appropriate intonation, tone and volume to present their writing to a group or class.



  • Use further prefixes and suffixes and understand how to add them.
  • Spell further homophones.
  • Spell words that are often misspelt.
  • Use the first two letters of a word to check its spelling in a dictionary.
  • Write from memory simple sentences, dictated by the teacher, that include words and punctuation taught so far.
  • Learn to spell new words correctly and have plenty of practice in spelling them.
  • Understand how to place the apostrophe in words with regular plurals (e.g. girls’, boys’).
  • Spell words as accurately as possible using their phonic knowledge and other knowledge of spelling, such as morphology and etymology.


  • Form and use the four basic handwriting joins.
  • Write legibly.

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